Noah L. 2002
Attorney General's intrusion into clinical practice.
N Engl J Med. 2002 Jun 13;346(24):1918-9; discussion 1918-9.
PMID: 12066817 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

MacDonald R. 2002,
Attorney General's intrusion into clinical practice.
N Engl J Med. 2002 Jun 13;346(24):1918-9; discussion 1918-9. 
PMID: 12063384 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Lowenstein E, Wanzer SH. 2002
The U.S. Attorney General's intrusion into medical practice.
N Engl J Med. 2002 Feb 7;346(6):447-8. 
PMID: 11832536 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
(Note: Our Founding Fathers warned about the government 
intruding into our medical conditions, records and treatments! 
This slippery slope has gotten a lot steeper and more precipitous.
Are not our Medical Rights as important as any other Human Right?)

These are some other new (2002) references, more coming soon.

Carter GT, Weydt P. 2002
Cannabis: old medicine with new promise for neurological disorders.
Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2002 Mar;3(3):437-40.
PMID: 12054093 [PubMed - in process]

Mechoulam R. 2002,  (over 30 years of publications !)
Discovery of endocannabinoids and some random thoughts
on their possible roles in neuroprotection and aggression.
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2002 Feb;66(2-3):93-9.
PMID: 12052029 [PubMed - in process]
(Note:  This is published in this journal because Anandamide is
Endogenous Essential Fatty Acid that fits CB1 & CB2? receptors,
and Postagladins are related chemical group with end closed into ring.
The connection between Postagladins in cell membrane and pain etc. and 
anandamide and THC agonists at receptors is still not fully known
but could have important relationships)

Lutz B. 2002 
Molecular biology of cannabinoid receptors.
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2002 Feb;66(2-3):123-42.
PMID: 12052031 [PubMed - in process]

Pertwee RG, Ross RA. 2002 
Cannabinoid receptors and their ligands.
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2002 Feb;66(2-3):101-21.
PMID: 12052030 [PubMed - in process]

Williams CM, Kirkham TC. 2002 
Observational analysis of feeding induced by Delta(9)-THC and anandamide.
Physiol Behav. 2002 Jun;76(2):241-50.
PMID: 12044596 [PubMed - in process]

Manara L, Croci T, Guagnini F, Rinaldi-Carmona M, 
Maffrand JP, Le Fur G, Mukenge S, Ferla G. 2002
Functional assessment of neuronal cannabinoid receptors 
in the muscular layers of human ileum and colon.
Dig Liver Dis. 2002 Apr;34(4):262-9.
PMID: 12038810 [PubMed - in process]

Howlett AC, Barth F, Bonner TI, Cabral G, Casellas P, Devane WA, 
Felder CC, Herkenham M, Mackie K, Martin BR, Mechoulam R, Pertwee RG. 2002
Int. Union of Pharmacology. XXVII. Classification of Cannabinoid Receptors.
Pharmacol Rev. 2002 Jun;54(2):161-202.
PMID: 12037135 [PubMed - in process]

Conboy JR. 2002
Smoke screen: America's drug policy and medical marijuana.
Food Drug Law J. 2000;55(4):601-17. 
PMID: 12025852 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Martin BR. 2002
Identification of the endogenous cannabinoid system 
through integrative pharmacological approaches.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jun;301(3):790-6. Review.
PMID: 12023505 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Onaivi ES, Leonard CM, Ishiguro H, Zhang PW, Lin Z, Akinshola BE, Uhl GR. 2002
Endocannabinoids and cannabinoid receptor genetics.
Prog Neurobiol. 2002 Apr;66(5):307-44.
PMID: 12015198 [PubMed - in process]

Moffat AC. 2002
The legalization of Cannabis for medical use.
Sci Justice. 2002 Jan-Mar;42(1):55-7. No abstract available.
PMID: 12012651 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Killestein J, Hoogervorst EL, Reif M, Kalkers NF, 
Van Loenen AC, Staats PG, Gorter RW, Uitdehaag BM, Polman CH. 2002
Safety, tolerability, and efficacy of orally administered cannabinoids in MS.
Neurology. 2002 May 14;58(9):1404-7.
PMID: 12011290 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Thompson AJ, Baker D. 2002
Cannabinoids in MS: potentially useful but not just yet!
Neurology. 2002 May 14;58(9):1323-4. No abstract available.
PMID: 12011274 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O'Leary DS, Block RI, Koeppel JA, Flaum M, Schultz SK, 
Andreasen NC, Ponto LB, Watkins GL, Hurtig RR, Hichwa RD. 2002 
Effects of smoking marijuana on brain perfusion and cognition.
Neuropsychopharmacology. 2002 Jun;26(6):802-16.
PMID: 12007751 [PubMed - in process] 

Degenhardt L, Hall W. 2002 
Cannabis and psychosis.
Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2002 Jun;4(3):191-6.
PMID: 12003681 [PubMed - in process]

Maccarrone M, Bari M, Battista N, Di Rienzo M, Finazzi-Agro A. 2002 
Endogenous cannabinoids in neuronal and immune cells: 
toxic effects, levels and degradation.
Funct Neurol. 2001;16 Suppl 4:53-60. Review. No abstract available.
PMID: 12002040 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Gruber AJ, Pope HG Jr. 2002 
Marijuana use among adolescents. 
Pediatr Clin North Am. 2002 Apr;49(2):389-413. Review. 
PMID: 11993290 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Maldonado R, Rodriguez de Fonseca F. 2002 
Cannabinoid addiction: behavioral models and neural correlates. 
J Neurosci. 2002 May 1;22(9):3326-31. Review. 
PMID: 11978807 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 

Wilson RI, Nicoll RA. 2002 
Endocannabinoid signaling in the brain. 
Science. 2002 Apr 26;296(5568):678-82. Review. 
PMID: 11976437 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Parker LA, Mechoulam R, Schlievert C. 2002 
Cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive component 
of cannabis and its synthetic dimethylheptyl
homolog suppress nausea in an experimental model with rats.
Neuroreport. 2002 Apr 16;13(5):567-70.
PMID: 11973447 [PubMed - in process]

Clayton N, Marshall FH, Bountra C, O'Shaughnessy CT. 2002 
CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors are implicated in inflammatory pain.
Pain. 2002 Apr;96(3):253-60. No abstract available.
PMID: 11972997 [PubMed - in process]

Mechoulam R, Spatz M, Shohami E. 2002 
Endocannabinoids and neuroprotection.
Sci STKE. 2002 Apr 23;2002(129):RE5. Review.
PMID: 11972360 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Elphick MR. 2002 
Evolution of Cannabinoid Receptors in Vertebrates: 
Identification of a CB(2) Gene in the Puffer Fish Fugu rubripes.
Biol Bull. 2002 Apr;202(2):104-7. No abstract available.
PMID: 11971807 [PubMed - in process]

Niveau G. 2002 
Cannabis-related flash-back, a medico-legal case
Encephale. 2002 Jan-Feb;28(1):77-9. French.
PMID: 11963347 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Devlin MG, Christopoulos A. 2002 
Modulation of cannabinoid agonist binding by 5-HT in the rat cerebellum.
J Neurochem. 2002 Mar;80(6):1095-102.
PMID: 11953460 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Vanhoenacker G, Van RP, De KD, Sandra P. 2002 
Chemotaxonomic features associated with flavonoids of cannabinoid-free cannabis 
(Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa L.) in relation to hops (Humulus lupulus L.).
Nat Prod Lett. 2002 Feb;16(1):57-63.
PMID: 11942684 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Brune K. 2002 
Next generation of everyday analgesics.
Am J Ther. 2002 May-Jun;9(3):215-23. Review.
PMID: 11941381 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Sil'kis IG. 2002 
Possible mechanism of cannabinoid-mediated modulation 
of signal transduction through the basal ganglia.
Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 2002 Feb;88(2):144-57. Review. Russian.
PMID: 11938644 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Lane SD, Cherek DR. 2002 
Marijuana effects on sensitivity to reinforcement in humans.
Neuropsychopharmacology. 2002 Apr;26(4):520-9.
PMID: 11927176 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Storr M, Gaffal E, Saur D, Schusdziarra V, Allescher HD. 2002 
Effect of cannabinoids on neural transmission in rat gastric fundus.
Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2002 Jan;80(1):67-76.
PMID: 11911227 [PubMed - in process]

Marsicano G, Moosmann B, Hermann H, Lutz B, Behlt C. 2002 
Neuroprotective properties of cannabinoids against oxidative stress: 
role of the cannabinoid receptor CB1.
J Neurochem. 2002 Feb;80(3):448-56.
PMID: 11905991 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Zagnoni PG, Albano C. 2002 
Psychostimulants and epilepsy.
Epilepsia. 2002;43 Suppl 2:28-31.
PMID: 11903480 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Schapiro RT. 2002 
Management of spasticity, pain, and paroxysmal phenomena in multiple sclerosis.
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2001 May;1(3):299-302. Review.
PMID: 11898533 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Singer HS. 2002 
The treatment of tics.
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2001 Mar;1(2):195-202. Review.
PMID: 11898516 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Molina-Holgado F, Molina-Holgado E, Guaza C, Rothwell NJ. 2002 
Role of CB1 and CB2 receptors in the inhibitory effects of cannabinoids on
lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide release in astrocyte cultures.
J Neurosci Res. 2002 Mar 15;67(6):829-36.
PMID: 11891798 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Wenger T, Gerendai I, Fezza F, Gonzalez S, Bisogno T, Fernandez-Ruiz J, Di Marzo V.
The hypothalamic levels of the endocannabinoid, anandamide, 
peak immediately before the onset of puberty in female rats.
Life Sci. 2002 Feb 8;70(12):1407-14.
PMID: 11883716 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Cloud J. 2002 
This bud's not for you.
Time. 2002 Feb 18;159(7):60-1. No abstract available.
PMID: 11881440 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Yoshida T, Hashimoto K, Zimmer A, Maejima T, Araishi K, Kano M. 2002 
The cannabinoid CB1 receptor mediates retrograde signals for 
depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition in cerebellar Purkinje cells.
J Neurosci. 2002 Mar 1;22(5):1690-7.
PMID: 11880498 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Buchwald A, Derendorf H, Ji F, Nagaraja NY, Wu WM, Bodor N. 2002 
Soft cannabinoid analogues as potential anti-glaucoma agents.
Pharmazie. 2002 Feb;57(2):108-14.
PMID: 11878185 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Ford WR, Honan SA, White R, Hiley CR. 2002 
Evidence of a novel site mediating anandamide-induced negative 
inotropic and coronary vasodilatator responses in rat isolated hearts.
Br J Pharmacol. 2002 Mar;135(5):1191-8.
PMID: 11877326 [PubMed - in process]

2001 REFERENCES Klein TW, Newton CA, Friedman H. 2001 Cannabinoids and the immune system. Pain Res Manag. 2001 Summer;6(2):95-101. Review. PMID: 11854771 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] LA CBC Medical Marijuana References
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    3 More Refs Houston, D.B., Howlett, A.C. Solubilization of the cannabinoid receptor from rat brain and its functional interaction with guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. Mol. Pharmacol. 43: 17-22 (1993). Thomas, B.F., Wei, X., and Martin, B.R. Characterization and autoradiographic localization of the cannabinoid binding site in rat brain using [3H]11-OH-D9-THC-DMH. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 263: 1383-1390 (1992). Jarbe TU, Hiltunen AJ, Mathis DA, Hanus L, Bruer A, Mechoulam R. Discriminative stimulus effects and receptor binding of enantiomeric pairs of cannabinoids in rats and pigeons; a comparison. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 264: 561-569 1993.

    Dawn Lyons-Johnson, ARS Information Staff, Greenbelt MD Gary D. Weesner Cannabinoid Receptors Key to Stress Response USDA-ARS Livestock Behavior Research Unit, Purdue University,

    IOM 1999 Chap 2 References Abood ME, Martin BR. 1996. Molecular neurobiology of the cannabinoid receptor. International Review of Neurobiology 39:197—221. Abood ME, Sauss C, Fan F, Tilton CL, Martin BR. 1993. Development of behavioral tolerance to delta 9-THC without alteration of cannabinoid receptor binding or mRNA levels in whole brain. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 46:575—579. Aceto MD, Scates SM, Lowe JA, Martin BR. 1995. Cannabinoid precipitated withdrawal by the selective cannabinoid receptor antagonist, SR 141716A. European Journal of Pharmacology 282:R1—R2. Adams IB, Martin BR. 1996. Cannabis: Pharmacology and toxicology in animals and humans. Addiction 91:1585—1614. Baczynsky WO, Zimmerman AM. 1983a. Effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabinol, and cannabidiol on the immune system in mice: I. In vivo investigation of the primary and secondary immune response. Pharmocology 26:1—11. Baczynsky WO, Zimmerman AM. 1983b. 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    Freedom To Exhale, Cannabinoids In Pain Managementx Leslie Iversen, 2001 Few well controlled trials of cannabis exist for systematic review Campbell FA, Tramθr MR, Carroll D, Reynolds DJM, Moore RA, McQuay HJ. 2001 Are cannabinoids an effective and safe option in the management of pain? A qualitative systematic review. BMJ 2001; 323: 13-16 Iversen LL. 2000 The science of marijuana. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology. 2001 Second report on therapeutic uses of cannabis. London: Stationery Office, 2001. Pertwee RG. 2001 Cannabinoid receptors and pain. Prog Neurobiol 2001; 63: 569-611. Denis J Petro 2001 Spasticity is not the same as pain 2001 Campbell FA, Tramθr MR, Carroll D, Reynolds DJM, Moore RA, McQuay HJ. Are cannabinoids an effective and safe option in the management of pain? A qualitative systematic review. BMJ 2001; 323: 13-16. Petro DJ, Ellenberger Jr C. 1981 Treatment of human spasticity with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. J Clin Pharmacol 1981; 21(suppl 8-9): S413-S416. Meinck HM, Schonle PW, Conrad B. 1989 Effect of cannabinoids on spasticity and ataxia in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol 1989; 236: 120-122. Ungerleider JT, Andyrsiak T, Fairbanks L, Ellison GW, Myers LW. 1987 Delta-9-THC in the treatment of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis. Adv Alcohol Subst Abuse 1987; 7: 39-50. Martyn CN, Illis LS, Thom J. 1995 Nabilone in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Lancet 1995; 345: 579. Franjo Grotenhermen 2001 Cannabinoid receptor agonists will soon find their place in modern medicine 2001 Campbell FA, Tramθr MR, Carroll D, Reynolds DJM, Moore RA, McQuay HJ. Are cannabinoids an effective and safe treatment option in the management of pain? A qualitative systematic review. BMJ 2001; 323: 13-16. Tramθr MR, Carroll D, Campbell FA, Reynolds DJM, Moore RA, McQuay HJ. 2001 Cannabinoids for control of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting: quantitative systematic review. BMJ 2001; 323: 16-21/ Grotenhermen F. 1999 Cannabis in der Schmerztherapie-ein neues Adjuvans? [Cannabis in pain therapya new adjuvant?] Forschung und Praxis, Wissenschaftsjournal der Δrztezeitung 1999; 276: 22-26. Kalso E. 2001 Cannabinoids for pain and nausea. BMJ 2001; 323: 2-3. Gonzalez-Rosales F, Walsh D. 1997 Intractable nausea and vomiting due to gastrointestinal mucosal metastases relieved by tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol). J Pain Symptom Manage 1997; 14: 311-314.

    Fiona A Campbell, Martin R Tramθr, Dawn Carroll, D John M Reynolds, R Andrew Moore, and Henry J McQuay, 2001 Are cannabinoids an effective and safe treatment option in the management of pain? A qualitative systematic review. BMJ 2001 323: 13.

    Krumm BA, 1990's Cannabis (Medical) Research Library Articles On Cannabis Receptors PDF Article Archives 1990's

    Chaperon F, Thiebot MH, 1999 Behavioral effects of cannabinoid agents in animals. Crit Rev Neurobiol 1999; 13(3):243-81

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Graeme Henderson, Sandy McKnight and Alistair Corbett Opiate And Cannabinoid Receptors Poster Table of Cannabinoid Receptor Pharmacology Cannabinoid Receptors (CB1 and CB2) and Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH), Antibodies Alpha Diagnostic International, Inc. 5415 Lost Lane, San Antonio, TX 78238 USA

    VITAMIN E RECEPTORS: Csaba G, Karabelyos CS. 2000 Influence of a single treatment with vitamin E or K (hormonal imprinting) of neonatal rats on the sexual behavior of adults. Acta Physiol Hung. 2000;87(1):25-30. PMID: 11032045 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Donchenko GV, Parkhomenko IuM, Parkhomets PK, Chernukhina LA, Petrova GV. 1992 Theoretical and practical aspects of studying specific proteins-- acceptors of vitamins and coenzymes Vopr Med Khim. 1992 Jul-Aug;38(4):6-10. Review. Russian. PMID: 1334297 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Gonzalez MJ. 1990 Serum concentrations and cellular uptake of vitamin E. Med Hypotheses. 1990 Jun;32(2):107-10. Review. PMID: 2165554 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Kitabchi AE, Wimalasena J. 1982 Demonstration of specific binding sites for 3H-RRR-alpha-tocopherol on human erythrocytes. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1982;393:300-14. PMID: 6293366 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Murphy DJ, Mavis RD. 1981 Membrane transfer of alpha-tocopherol. Influence of soluble alpha-tocopherol-binding factors from the liver, lung, heart, and brain of the rat. J Biol Chem. 1981 Oct 25;256(20):10464-8. PMID: 6270112 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Kitabchi AE, Wimalasena J, Barker J. 1980 Specific receptor sites for alpha-tocopherol in purified isolated adrenocortical cell membrane. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1980 Oct 31;96(4):1739-46. PMID: 6255955 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Kitabchi AE, Wimalasena J. 1982 Specific binding sites for D-alpha-tocopherol on human erythrocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1982 Jan 22;684(2):200-6. PMID: 7055562 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Wimalasena J, Davis M, Kitabchi AE. 1982 Characterization and solubilization of the specific binding sites for d-alpha-tocopherol from human erythrocyte membranes. Biochem Pharmacol. 1982 Nov 1;31(21):3455-61. PMID: 7150365 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Bellizzi MC, Dutta-Roy AK, James WP. 1997 High D-glucose does not affect binding of alpha-tocopherol to human erythrocytes. Mol Cell Biochem. 1997 May;170(1-2):187-93. PMID: 9144334 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Kitabchi AE, Wimalasena J, Barker J. 1980 Specific receptor sites for alpha-tocopherol in purified isolated adrenocortical cell membrane. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1980 Oct 31;96(4):1739-46. PMID: 6255955 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Murphy DJ, Mavis RD. 1981 Membrane transfer of alpha-tocopherol. Influence of soluble alpha-tocopherol-binding factors from the liver, lung, heart, and brain of the rat. J Biol Chem. 1981 Oct 25;256(20):10464-8. PMID: 6270112 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Clement M, Dinh L, Bourre JM. 1995 Uptake of dietary RRR-alpha- and RRR-gamma-tocopherol by nervous tissues, liver and muscle in vitamin-E-deficient rats. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995 May 17;1256(2):175-80. PMID: 7766695 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Dutta-Roy AK. 1999 Molecular mechanism of cellular uptake and intracellular translocation of alpha-tocopherol: role of tocopherol-binding proteins. Food Chem Toxicol. 1999 Sep-Oct;37(9-10):967-71. PMID: 10541452 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    Notes 1 The field of neuroscience has grown substantially since the publication of the 1982 IOM report. The number of members in the Society for Neuroscience provides a rough measure of the growth in research and knowledge about the brain: as of the middle of 1998, there were over 27,000 members, more than triple the number in 1982. 2 Affinity is a measure of how avidly a compound binds to a receptor. The higher the affinity of a compound, the higher its potency; that is, lower doses are needed to produce its effects. 3 Eicosanoids all contain a chain of 20 carbon atoms and are named after eikosi, the Greek word for 20. 4 Neurons are often defined by the primary neurotransmitter released at their terminals. Thus, cholinergic neurons release acetylcholine, noradrenergic neurons release noradrenalin (also known as norepinephrine), and glutamergic neurons release glutamate. 5 After a gene is transcribed, it is often spliced and modified into mRNA, or message RNA. The CB-2 mRNA is the gene "message" that moves from the cell nucleus into the cytoplasm where it will be translated into the receptor protein. 6 Mitogens are substances that stimulate cell division (mitosis) and cell transformation. 7 While 3 mg/kg would be a high dose for humans (see Table 3.1), in rodents, it is a low dose for immunological effects and a moderate dose for behavioral effects. 8 In vitro studies are those in which animal cells or tissue are removed and studied outside the animal; in vivo studies are those in which experiments are conducted in the whole animal. 9 Antinociception: inhibition of the perception of pain.
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